Every adult and independent person, for sure, thinks over the following questions: “What are we working for? And how long will this go on? We have all heard such a steady expression – “I will rest in retirement.” Is it really so? Will each of us, being in the status of a pensioner, truly relax and allow ourselves a comfortable life. This question is rather already from the category of philosophical. Let's try to figure it out.
What does “pension” mean?
According to the interpretation of Ozhegov’s dictionary, a pension is, firstly, monetary support for length of service, disability, disability, in case of loss of the breadwinner; secondly, money received as such security. On the legal side, a pension is a monthly state cash payment received by a citizen upon reaching the age specified by law. Thus, the pension is a kind of “airbag”, which the state guarantees to its citizens for conscientious work, and more precisely, for taxes paid to the pension fund.
How does pension get formed?
The pension is formed at the expense of compulsory payments, from which the citizen himself can not seem to refuse. Moreover, working citizen has a burden to ensure a larger number of socially vulnerable groups of people who are not working.
Types of pensions:
According to Article 4 of the Law “On Pension Provision”, labor and social pensions are granted in Belarus.
1) by age – (on general grounds) men are entitled to work with at least 25 years of experience, women with work experience of at least 20 years after they reach the generally established retirement age. In view of the changes in the legislation, the retirement age until 2021 inclusively increases annually by six months. The right to receive payments in 2020 are men who have reached – 62 years old, women – 57 years old; and in 2021, men – 62 years of 6 months, women – 57 years of 6 months; in 2022 and subsequent years: men – 63 years old, women – 58 years old.
2) for disability – a pension is granted for the period of disability established by MREC (medical rehabilitation expert commission).
3) on the occasion of the loss of the breadwinner – shall be appointed to disabled members of the family of the deceased breadwinner, if during the life of the breadwinner they were dependent on him.
4) for seniority – workers and employees of the aircraft,
certain categories of medical and teaching staff, athletes.
5) for special merits to the republic – the most “interesting category”, since the presence of special merits and their degree in each case is determined individually. It can be sports victories at the highest level, successes in research and creative spheres. Also, persons holding senior posts in public administration can count on such payments. Such a pension is paid along with labor (by age or disability).
Categories of people entitled to pension for special merits to the republic
A limited circle of persons are entitled to it, namely: Heroes of the Republic of Belarus and the USSR; mothers with many children who have given birth or raised nine or more children (it is necessary to have an appropriate order or medal); laureates of State Prizes of the Republic of Belarus, USSR, BSSR; citizens of the Republic of Belarus who hold the highest state posts in the Republic of Belarus (for example, chairmen of regional executive committees); winners and prize–winners of major international sports competitions; holders of high state awards (for example, the order "For Service to the Homeland"); to the heads of partisan brigades. Such a pension is established by a special Commission under the Council of the Republic.
Social pensions are granted to citizens who do not receive a labor pension and (or) a pension from other states, in accordance with international treaties of the Republic of Belarus:
– children with disabilities under the age of 18 years (85% of the Byudzhet prozhitochnogo minimuma (hereinafter BMP);
– persons with disabilities of all groups (I group – 110% BPM, II group – 85–95% BPM, III group – 75% BPM);
– men who have reached 65 years of age, women who have reached 60 years of age and have not developed a minimum length of service (50% of BPM);
– for children – in case of loss of a breadwinner (85% BPM);
For reference: (BPM) is the amount of money established by the state, which should satisfy the basic vital needs of a citizen of the country. This is an analytical tool that allows you to determine the standard of living. According to the latest BMP data is 239.87 rubles.
The size of pension payments in Belarus
The minimum amount of an old–age labor pension
The minimum amount of an old–age labor pension is set at 25 percent of the maximum budget for the average subsistence minimum, approved by the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Republic of Belarus for the last two quarters (Article 23 of the Law). Today it is 60 rubles.
The minimum size of the labor disability pension
The minimum size of the labor disability pension for groups I and II is set at 100 percent, for group III – 50 percent, for mother–heroines (regardless of the group of disability) – 100 percent of the minimum amount of old–age pension (Section 31 of the Law).
The minimum size of the pension for the loss of the breadwinner
The minimum size of the pension for the loss of the breadwinner is set at 100 percent of the minimum size of the old age pension, that is, 60 rubles; orphans, persons from among orphans (provided that a monthly insurance payment is not received due to the death of the parent) – 200 percent of the minimum amount of the old–age pension (Article 38 of the Law), that is 120 rubles.
The minimum length of service pension for seniority is set at 100 percent of the minimum old-age pension (Section 50 of the Law).
The size of the social pension
The size of the social pension varies from 50 to 110 percent of the budget for the cost of living. Today it is almost 240 rubles, which means the amount of accrued social pension in the range from 120 to 264 rubles.
Set of documents for assigning an old-age pension
Documents for assigning an old-age pension
To assign an old-age pension, you will need to provide such documents as: a salary certificate and (or) an extract from the individual personal account of the insured person in the state social insurance system (the green social insurance card number is the data of your personal account in the Social Fund protection of the population on which all your transfers accumulate during the course of employment).
Documents for assigning other types of pension
For other types of pensions, they may require: documents proving that the applicant’s child was recognized as disabled from childhood or a disabled child, a certificate of a participant in the liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, documents on conferring the honorary title “Mother Heroine”, a report from the medical and rehabilitation expert commission or a medical advisory commission on the need for permanent assistance, a document containing information on the appointment of a monthly insurance payment under the legislation on optional insurance against accidents at work and occupational diseases, proof of kinship with the deceased member of the family breadwinner, a death certificate, the court decision on the recognition of the citizen.
All of the above documents can be presented both in originals and in copies certified by a notary or by the Office for Labor, Employment and Social Protection.
It is a division of the Social Security Fund along with the Social Insurance Fund. It was created in 1991, reorganized in 1993. The fund is an independent financial and banking system; its funds are not related to the state budget. Its main task is to accumulate funds from tax deductions of employers and self–employed persons, and after that a clear distribution of payments in accordance with applicable law. The Fund has its own website. as well as groups on social networks: Vkontakte, OK.
Any person can send an electronic appeal using a special form on the website, having received a response within a month. The central office of the fund is located at the city of Minsk, Pobediteley av., 23, k.2. It is worth noting that you can find units of the fund in almost every major city in Belarus.
Photo: quality-of-life.tsu.ru, avatars.mds.yandex.net, promdevelop.ru.