Coronavirus in Belarus: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
Coronavirus is a new strain that has not previously been detected in humans. Coronavirus causes disease from a household cold to SARS and serious complications.
How dangerous is COVID-19?
Coronaviruses affect the human respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract, but this is not the only thing that is dangerous. Coronavirus has a specific penetration mechanism - it penetrates the cell through its membrane and is embedded in human DNA. This leads to damage to tissues in the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract, causing further complications.
Coronaviruses do not penetrate through the cell membrane in a chaotic order, but attack the transmembrane receptors and mimic S-proteins important for life, which leads to complicated recognition of the virus by the immune system.
Some coronaviruses are contagious even before symptoms appear in an infected person.
How does the virus spread?
Infected people can infect Coronavirus. The disease is transmitted from person to person through small droplets released from the nose or mouth by sneezing and coughing. The droplets get on surrounding objects and surfaces. Infection can occur by touching these objects and then in the eyes, nose or mouth. Infection can also occur by breathing small droplets that are released when you sneeze and cough with contaminated COVID-19. It is therefore important to maintain a distance of more than 1 meter.
How can I get coronavirus?
Coronavirus can be contracted from an infected person or animal. Mechanisms of disease transmission:
- by airborne droplets;
- airborne dust;
- through contact with an infected person.
The incubation period is about 5 days, but may last from 1 to 14 days.
Immunity after the disease is not generated - it can be re-infected. With repeated and subsequent infection, the disease is more severe than it was the first time and causes severe complications to the respiratory system.
How do I recognize the first signs of COVID-19?
Signs of coronavirus include respiratory syndromes, fever, cough, breathing problems and respiratory disorders. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia or acute respiratory syndrome, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and death of an infected person.
Symptoms of COVID-19
Contaminated COVID-19 has the following symptoms:
- pain in swallowing and sneezing;
- reduced oxygen content in the body or individual organs and tissues;
- temperature rise;
- muscle pain.
Picture 1 Photo by polese.by
Carrier of infection is contagious
In some cases, infected people may have no symptoms, i.e. the virus test will be positive, but you will not worry about sickness. But even if you have no symptoms, you're still contagious. However, the risk of infection from such a person is extremely low. Also, many people have very few symptoms of coronavirus. This is common in the early stages of the disease. In such cases, patients are hospitalized to further monitor and prevent the virus from spreading.
Who's at risk?
WHO notes that older people and those with somatic conditions such as hypertension, heart, lung, cancer or diabetes mellitus are at risk.
Complications in the coronavirus
Complications in coronavirus patients may be as follows:
- respiratory failure, which develops a pronounced oxygen deficiency;
- acute renal insufficiency;
- complications of severe infectious diseases;
- formation of blood clots in blood vessels;
- complication of pregnancy.
Laboratory diagnostics are performed using tests to detect coronavirus RNA. The main biomaterial to be tested is a nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal smear.
Diagnostic indicators and biomarkers
Coronavirus manifests itself in varying degrees of severity, so one of the tasks of the diagnosis is to identify patients in a timely manner, in which the disease may progress into severe form. For this purpose, appropriate biomarkers are identified. Depending on the severity of the disease, blood tests are carried out to guide the patient and respond in a timely manner to changes in his condition.
Critical patients have an increased content of markers of inflammatory processes in plasma.
Serological tests are under development. At the end of February, the first reports about the creation of tests based on the definition of specific antibodies in the body appeared. The method of combined testing of blood on IgM- and IgG-antibodies to the virus simultaneously was tested. Testing for immunoglobulins M makes it possible to determine the fact of recent virus infection, while testing for immunoglobulins G determines the presence of infection at later stages of the disease. Testing time is 15 minutes, and the final sensitivity and specificity during the trial was 89% and 91%.