Sights of the Mogilev region
Our country, despite the relatively small area, has a large number of attractions, which are a kind of magnet for tourists. In each of the areas of our "blue-eyed" country you can find something very interesting. The Mogilev region is no exception. Over its history, Mogilev has repeatedly turned out to be an important strategic point on the map of Belarus. During the First World War, here was the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief and the residence of Emperor Nicholas II. And on the eve of World War II, the city almost became the capital of Belarus due to the dangerous proximity of Minsk to the western border. The House of Soviets erected in a short time reminds of those times - an almost exact copy of the Minsk Government House. One of the most striking pages of the history of Mogilev was the heroic defense at the beginning of World War II, when the city lasted 23 days, 16 of them in complete encirclement. In this article, we will try to reveal for you the most famous and remarkable objects of the Mogilev region.
The fortress is the remains of the legendary citadel, which was the largest in Europe (its area exceeded 120 hectares) once, located on the eastern outskirts of the city.
The construction of the fortress began in 1810 on the site of a medieval castle, on the right bank of the Berezina, and just a year later, the fortress erected at an accelerated pace was ranked among the first-class defense structures. The engineer, Theodor Narbut, who supervised the excavation works, strengthened the already impregnable stronghold with masked “wolf pits” and a system of underground passages that made it possible to suddenly attack the enemy from the rear. “Not a single fortress of Russia was as useful as Bobruisk in 1812,” wrote Major General Mikhailovsky in the book “Heroes of the Patriotic War”. For more than four months, her small garrison restrained the onslaught of the twenty thousandth French army. It was under the protection of the Bobruisk fortress that the commander of the 2nd Russian army Bagration was able to reorganize units, replenish ammunition and then safely connect with the 1st army of Barclay de Tolly.
At the end of the war with Napoleon, engineer-general Karl Opperman drew up a new project for the reconstruction and improvement of the fortress, according to which, it was built until 1825. And then fortification was turned into political penal servitude, the first prisoners of which were the participants in the Decembrist uprising. Herzen wrote about the most difficult conditions in Bobruisk casemates: “Let Siberia, let it be anything, but not this terrible prison on the Berezina River!” By the way, the current city prison is also located in the former fortress structure - Opperman Tower.
Several forts, now awaiting reconstruction, fragments of ramparts, Vodyanye (Rogachevsky) gates have been preserved from the former fortifications of the Bobruisk fortress. In its coastal part, the remains of the Slavic settlement of the 5th-6th centuries are hidden underground, the exact location of which an ordinary tourist, not an archaeologist, is unlikely to determine.
Mogilev’ Town Hall
The Mogilev Town Hall was built in 1679–1681. local masters Fezkoy and Athanas with the participation of the “Doylides” Ignatius, Nedoseki, Vaska, Andrey and Grishka.
Made in the Baroque style, the town hall was considered the best work of civil architecture in Belarus of the XVII century. The height of its octagonal tower was 46 meters. In 1780, the Russian Empress Catherine II and the Austrian Emperor Joseph II, who met in Mogilev, examined the city from this tower in order to decide the fate of the Commonwealth.
After the reform of 1870, separate services of the city government were located in the town hall. While the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander was in Mogilev, a military radio station was located here. Later, the town hall tower was used as a fire tower of the city.
In 1957, the town hall, which suffered during the Great Patriotic War, was blown up, but at the beginning of the 21st century it was possible to restore it to its former place according to old drawings. Construction was completed in 2008. Now in the town hall is the Museum of the History of Mogilev.
In the Mogilev suburbs, near the village of Buinichi, there is a complex dedicated to the Great Patriotic War. This complex has the name "Buinichsky field."
In 1941, the line of Soviet defense passed in this place and there was a difficult struggle for Mogilev. The battles for Mogilev began on July 10. German troops hoped to occupy the regional center on the fly, and, advancing, sent 70 tanks to the Buinichsky field. The main battle lasted 14 hours. Soviet soldiers managed to burn 39 tanks and repel several attacks. The defense of Mogilev lasted until July 22. The German commanders did not dare to inform Hitler about the failures on the way to Mogilev and reported that the offensive was successful. The Mogilev Museum will tell you a story about how one of the german officers went to study the Mogilev restaurants, thinking that the city had long been taken, and was captured by Soviet soldiers.
Buinichsky field has become a symbol of courage of Soviet soldiers. The famous writer, Konstantin Simonov, described the legendary battle in the novel “Alive and Dead”, and he bequeathed his ashes precisely over the Buinichsky field.
The Buynichskoye Pole memorial complex appeared at the site of the battle in 1995. It includes a 27-meter chapel, an arch, an alley with a central composition. Here are samples of military weapons of the Second World War period, high relief boards, as well as a memorial stone to Konstantin Simonov.
The monument to the Stargazer, sitting in an environment of 12 chairs with zodiac signs, is one of the most memorable in the city.
At the very beginning, it was planned to install a powerful spotlight next to it, which would be aimed at the sky and help even astronauts in orbit with the naked eye to accurately recognize the location of Mogilev.
Cathedral of Three Saints
This temple was erected on public donations according to the project of the provincial architect Kalnin. Construction continued for 11 years. The cathedral was consecrated in the name of three Saints of the Orthodox Church - Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian and John Chrysostom. It is made in the pseudo-Russian style, in the shape of a cross and has seven domes. Above the entrance is a high bell tower.
During the First World War, the Russian emperor Nicholas II repeatedly visited the temple. In the 1960-1980s. the club of the Strommashina factory was located here, the city disco Resonance was thundering. Only in 1989, the church was again consecrated and began to operate.
Today, the cathedral is the cathedral and the most visited temple in the city. One of the most revered local shrines is a list of the ancient icon of the Mogilev Brotherly Mother of God. This icon was once stored in the temple of the Mogilev Brotherhood Monastery and, according to legend, saved the city from enemies three times.
St. Nicholas Glad Monastery
The monastery was founded in 1636 by the Orthodox Metropolitan of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Peter the Grave.
After a third of a century, stone buildings in the Baroque style were erected on the site of wooden buildings. The main temple of the monastery was consecrated in the name of St. Nicholas. In 1798, near the St. Nicholas Church, a “warm” (winter) church was built, consecrated in the name of St. Onufry the Great. During the XVII – XVIII centuries. residential buildings and a belfry also grew here. All these buildings today are included in the monastery ensemble, the main dominant of which remains the St. Nicholas Church.
The earliest frescoes in it date back to the end of the 17th century. In addition, the carved four-tier iconostasis, made in the technique of Belarusian volumetric carving with gilding, was restored. The temple holds a picture-icon of Nicholas II the Martyr, found in the basement of one of the houses in Mogilev on the day of the canonization of the royal family. Today the complex of St. Nicholas Convent, revived in 1991, is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary
This historic Catholic building in the church was erected between 1738-1752. The cathedral belongs to the Baroque-style architectural monuments with paintings on motifs from Bible scenes located on the vaulted ceiling.
Previously, there was a monastery Carmelite complex. In 1636, a log church was erected on its square in honor of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In 1708, a fire destroyed it, and later in its place the construction of a new cathedral building began.
On December 25, 1772, by decree of Empress Catherine the Second, the Catholic direction of the diocese of Belarus was laid, the administrative center of which was Mogilev. By 1782, the diocese became the Mogilev archdiocese, taking subordinate branches of the Catholic Church of the Russian Empire, including Moscow and St. Petersburg. In 1783, it was transformed into a cathedral diocesan cathedral. Given that among the holy defenders was St. Stanislav, then he was named in honor of the Assumption or the Cathedral of St. Stanislav.
By the last years of the 18th century global transformations took place in it, it was rebuilt, a 4-column portico-platform appeared on the facade. Elements of pictorial painted paintings on the vaulted ceiling were made in the 2nd half of the 18th century. Mogilev artists led by Pavel Piotrovsky.
In 1956, it was closed, giving room for the needs of the Central Archive of Historical Documents. In 1960, the archive was transferred to Minsk, and the regional state archive took its place. During this period, almost all ceiling paintings were lost, a rare organ with ceramic tubes was lost.
By the beginning of the 90s. 20 century the monument again returned to the bosom of the church. Restoration work in the building continued until 1994. The cathedral was given the co-cathedral status as part of the archdiocese formed in 1991.
Since 1993, the cathedral has served as the venue for the festival of sacred music "Magutny God."
Mogilev Historical Museum
Since the 1990s, the Mogilev Historical Museum has been located in the palace of the bishop, built in the 20th century, in the late Baroque style. In 2002, the first exhibition began its work. In 2008, the gallery moved to the newly created according to the drawings of the XVII century. city hall. The building is located in the historic heart of the city. Celebrations are held here, city authorities hold official receptions.
Exhibition rooms occupy two floors. Here you can see objects of the X - XX centuries, used at different stages of the history of Mogilev. In the gallery, visitors will get acquainted with significant periods in the development of the city, the culture of the Middle Ages, everyday life, and religions. In fine, warm weather, visitors are allowed to visit the observation tower, which offers excellent views of the city and the Dnieper.
The complex began operating in 2004. Exhibition facilities occupy an area of more than 3300 m². At the moment, 5 galleries are working. The museum fund has 13,751 exhibits, 8,965 of which relate to the main fund, and the rest to the auxiliary.
In the halls, for all to see, household items, various documents, photographs, the cultural heritage of the Middle Ages and other things are on display.
Cathedral of the Holy Trinity
The main Orthodox church in the city of Mogilev, a monument of architecture of the early XX century. A distinctive feature of the temple is the ability to enter it from three sides. The temple is named after three saints - Vasil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, John Chrysostom.
In 1903, the ceremonial laying of the first stone of the new church took place in the name of the three hierarchs of the Church - Vasil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, John Chrysostom. The construction was carried out according to the project and under the supervision of a court adviser, provincial architect P. Kalinin. Funds were collected through voluntary donations in parish churches, as well as on subscription lists.
The construction of the cathedral lasted 11 years and was completed in 1913. The temple was consecrated on December 1 of that year.
While there were the Stavka of Mogilev (1915-1918), the cathedral was often visited by Emperor Nicholas II.
With interruptions, the temple operated until 1959.
In 1961, a church built on public money was closed - the bell tower, domes, crosses were demolished and the club of the Strommashina plant was founded here. In the room, to the music of a brass band, they began to arrange dance evenings, and then the city disco Resonance thundered.
December 25, 1989 the temple was consecrated again and began to operate.
The church has a library of Orthodox literature, a reading room, a Sunday school, a youth fraternity was formed, and bells were restored.
In 1995, a baptismal church was built at the cathedral in honor of St. George of Konis, designed by architect A. Yurkovets.
list of the miraculous Mogilev-Brotherly Icon of the Mother of God,
Icon of St. Nicholas with particles of relics,
venerable lists of the Belynich and Borkolaba icons of the Mother of God,
the image of the Monk Euphrosyne of Polotsk.
Mogilev theatre of drama
The idea of building a theatre in Mogilev was discussed by higher circles of society for twenty years. But there was no money for such construction, and generous sponsors were not found. Then the inhabitants of the city took this matter into their own hands - and began to collect donations.
They collected money for almost twenty years - construction began only in 1886. We chose the project of the architect P.R. Kamburov, the construction was led by the provincial engineer Milyanovsky. The building of the theatre was erected for two years, and now - in 1888 it was ready. And a year later, viewers were able to enjoy the performances of the permanent drama group of Dergach.
The theatre building was built in the very centre of Mogilev - at the intersection of Dniprovsky Prospekt Dvoryanskaya Street. The building had a rectangular shape with a rounded end wall. The main facade was decorated with two tower-shaped volumes, between which was a vestibule with a balcony at the entrance. The building was not plastered; all decorative elements were painted in white. The auditorium was made for five hundred people. The location and construction of the lodges were seen at the Warsaw Maly Theatre.
The construction of the theatre in Mogilev became a landmark event not only for the city, but also for the entire region. It was the first theatre in the territory of modern Belarus for which a separate building was built.
The theatre was reconstructed several times. In 1985, the Ministry of Culture wanted to demolish the theatre building, and build a new theatre instead of that. Money has already been allocated. Then the population of the city defended their theater. The people of the town managed to defend it: the theater was closed, but only for reconstruction, which went on for more than fifteen years. Residents of Mogilev were able to visit it only in 2001, when it finally opened after reconstruction. During this time, the foundation was strengthened, a stage box was built on. In the auditorium, they tried to recreate the interior of the beginning of the 20th century, the elements of which were carved balconies, a governor's bed, stucco decorations. A metal weather vane appeared on the roof of the theatre, on which the number "1888" is stamped - the year the theater was built.
In 1590, a letter was received by the Hetman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Khodkevich, giving him the right to build stone fortifications in Bykhov instead of wooden ones. However, construction began only 20 years later and was completed in 1619.
Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Lev Sapega, who became the next owner of Bykhov, decided to make serious changes to the architecture of the castle. So a whole complex was formed, which, in addition to the fortified palace, included three faceted towers, an 800-meter high rampart with bastions, a moat filled with water, and in the northern part there was also a fortress wall. Although the castle is built in the Baroque style, its appearance also contains elements characteristic of the Renaissance style.
Unfortunately, nothing was preserved from the rich interior of the palace. For the participation of Sapega’s family in the uprising of 1830-1831 the castle was confiscated and eventually turned into a barracks. In the XX century, the building, which began to gradually collapse, was occupied by a woodworking workshop. After a fire in 2004, it was abandoned for some time.
In the early 2010s, it was decided to restore Bykhov Castle and a fundraiser was announced.
Potemkin Palace in Krichev
After the first partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, the Mogilev region became part of Russia, and the Empress Catherine began to distribute the local lands to her courtiers. Her favorite, Prince Potemkin, received Krichev and began to build a palace in the city of Sozh.
The building in the style of classicism was designed by architect Ivan Starov. From a height it resembles the letter "E", most likely so Potemkin wanted to please Catherine II. The empress, by the way, called in Krichev and stayed in this palace.
Prince Potemkin did not own the estate for long. Already in 1778, it was bought by Jan Golynsky, whose grandson Stephen rebuilt the palace in the Neo-Gothic style in the middle of the 19th century. The building had 72 rooms, a park was laid around. In 1898 there was a severe fire. Stefan tried to rebuild the palace, but could not do this because of the First World War and the revolution. In the following decades, the building housed a school for some time, but mostly the estate was abandoned.
In the 1980s, the restoration of the Potemkin Palace began, which ended in 2008. Now the palace is open to visitors. There are Krichevsky historical museum and registry office.
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