Unemployment in Belarus
What is unemployment?
Unemployment can be called a situation in which an economically active population that wants and can work is not able to find work.
The unemployment rate in Belarus
Natural increase of unemployment
The natural unemployment rate means "full employment" of the population. But in this case, natural unemployment is not equal to the absence of unemployment. Actually, unemployment at a natural level is an economic situation in which there is no cyclical unemployment, but there is no employment of a certain percentage of the population.
The causes of natural unemployment can be factors such as lack of information, artificial barriers to legislation, bureaucracy, demographic changes, and etc. It is not possible to change the situation with natural unemployment in the short period of time.
Unemployment and coronavirus
The global economical crisis caused by the coronavirus can lead to a significant increase in actual unemployment in the Republic of Belarus.
The registered unemployment rate of January 1, 2020 was 0.2 percent of the working population (as of January 1, 2019 - 0.3 percent).
The forecast of the International Labor Organization says that the increase in the number of unemployed and poor in the world due to the coronavirus pandemic is quite realistic and relevant for Belarus today.
The International Labor Organization suggests that if the coronavirus pandemic has a significant impact on the global economy, about 25 million people may lose their jobs. In addition, during the crisis, state-owned enterprises in Belarus do not fire people, but send them on unpaid vacation, which means hidden unemployment.
Unemployment benefit is a regular cash benefit paid by the state for citizens which have unemployment status.
If for some reason you were left without work, but you were unable to find a source of income yourself, you can register at the labor exchange. In this way, you will be given official unemployment status. To do this, you need to contact your territorial department for labor, employment and social protection. In this case, a little financial assistance in a difficult situation for you may be unemployment benefits.
How to register for unemployment?
Registration of citizens as unemployed is carried out at their place by the departments of labor, employment and social protection in personal presence.
When registering as unemployed, a citizen presents the documents specified in paragraph 2.30 of the list of administrative procedures carried out by state bodies and other organizations upon citizens' applications, approved by Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus dated April 26, 2010 No. 200 “On administrative procedures carried out by state bodies and other organizations according to statements of citizens ":
- passport or other document, which indicates your person,
- employment record book,
- civil contract and a document that confirms the early termination of the contract (if any),
- a certificate of education, a document of studying;
- certificate of average earnings (income) for the last 12 months,
- Income declaration in the form which is established by the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection;
- military ID for persons discharged from the military or alternative service, as well as service in the internal affairs bodies, the Investigative Committee, the State Committee of forensic examinations, financial investigation bodies of the State Control Committee, bodies and units for emergency situations;
- birth certificate of a child – for persons with children under the age of 14,
- certificate of a disabled child (for persons with disabled children under the age of 18);
- certificate of release (for persons released from places of deprivation of liberty);
- certificate of self-employment (for graduates who have received higher, specialized secondary, vocational education in full-time education at the expense of budget funds);
- The conclusion of the medical advisory commission (for persons with restrictions on the state of health at work);
- a copy of the dissolution of the court or divorce certificate or other document confirming the category of single-parent family (for single-parent families);
- a document confirming the status of orphans and children without parental care, as well as the status of persons from among orphans and children without parental care.
What benefits does unemployment registration give?
If you become unemployed, you can claim some guarantees. For instance:
- receiving unemployment benefits. The term for the payment of this benefit may not exceed 26 calendar weeks for each 12-month period, starting from the day of registration by the unemployed.
- getting help. It can be obtained in addition to unemployment benefits if you have been registered unemployed for more than one month.
- career guidance, retraining, advanced training. This warranty is free of charge. At the same time, a scholarship is paid during training.
- compensation of expenses when moving to a new place of residence and work if the unemployed are provided with work in another locality;
- free medical examination upon employment and referral to training;
- the opportunity to participate in paid public works;
Unemployment Tax in Belarus
Who applies to the unemployment tax?
In 2020, the following persons are excluded from the list of employed citizens:
1. Belarusians with whom labor relations have been terminated,
2. military personnel, employees of a militarized organization who had special reservist ranks during classes and training camps, as well as having alternative service for 6 months,
3. graduates of the full-time education;
4. students of theological educational institutions,
5. people which are named people with disabilities (regardless of group, cause, date of occurrence and period of disability),
6. renting residential and non-residential premises,
7. performing seasonal work during the full season;
8. under medical supervision during pregnancy and childbirth;
9. serving a sentence by a court sentence and being in medical labor dispensaries;
10. spouses of military personnel under contract military service, military service of draft officers, as well as a young specialist who began work on the distribution (reallocation) or direction (subsequent direction) to work, for the time of their joint residence in an area where there is no possibility find a job;
11. Olympic champions which receive a state scholarship.
12. persons receiving a disability pension or survivor's loss due to an industrial accident or occupational disease, receiving monthly insurance payments from industrial accidents and occupational diseases.
13. people who receive pensions (including from other states, benefits from the Social Security Fund (except for lump sums), as well as temporary disability benefits).
Does a foreigner need to pay unemployment tax?
During 6 months, citizens of Belarus who have arrived in our country for permanent residence, as well as foreigners or stateless persons who have received a permanent residence permit in Belarus and are registered at their place of residence, are exempt from tax. Their "Immunity" lasts six months, starting from the month in which they were registered in our country.
Employment Centre in Belarus
How can help the Employment Centre?
Mostly the demand for personnel is now in the field of healthcare and social services, industry and construction.
How long are they looking for work?
The average period of employment is 2 months. But in different cases this period may differ. It depends on who comes with the baggage and motivation to the employment service. If a person after a long break has lost his previous qualifications, then he has to work longer.
What training courses can you take at the employment service?
They are focused on the needs of the labor market. That is, the employment service offers to undergo training and master mainly working professions. There are more than 20 different courses in the list: driver, loader, plasterer, tiler, storekeeper, boiler room operator, trolley and tram driver.
How can you ask for help?
You can apply on the committee website.
After training and successful passing the exam, a qualification is awarded and a state-issued document on the receipt of a profession is issued.
State regulation of unemployment in Belarus
Statesmen regulate unemployment in our country, having the following provisions:
1. giving a recommendatory nature to the application of the Unified Tariff Schedule for Workers of the Republic of Belarus (hereinafter referred to as the UTS) and expanding the rights of business entities with regard to the formation of wage conditions for their employees;
2. expansion of the rights of employers in matters of raising tariff rates (salaries) of employees and establishing incentive payments;
3. streamlining the current regulatory framework governing the conditions of remuneration.
- the establishment of a single standard in the amount of 80 percent of the funds allocated for the payment of bonuses and allowances, in respect of only monopolistic organizations;
Granting the employer the right to choose to determine the remuneration of employees either on the basis of the UTS or without it will contribute to:
the formation of market incentives to increase the innovative activity of all business entities;
ensuring transparency and ease of payroll;
attracting and retaining highly qualified specialists;
improving investment attractiveness for foreign investors;
introduction of progressive world experience in the field of labor motivation in the republic of Belarus.
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