In proctology, the main links are highly qualified specialists, advanced treatment methods, the latest clinical diagnostic equipment.
Basic services in proctology:
- Consultation of a specialist;
- Treatment of hemorrhoids;
- Treatment of anal fissures;
- Removal of things;
- The use of surgical methods;
- The use of laser and wave methods in the treatment, etc.
You can find the best centers for consultations and treatment here.
Main definitions and diseases
Proctology is a branch of medicine that treats diseases of the rectum. The main diseases are anal fissures, hemorrhoids, polyps in the rectum, prolapse of the rectum, itching in the anus, etc.
Hemorrhoids are the most common disease in proctology. It is found in both man and woman. The basis of the disease is a violation of the normal structure of the walls of blood vessels, stagnant blood phenomena and, as a result, inflammatory processes in the rectum, which lead to bleeding, vascular loss.
Anal fissures are tears in the mucous membrane of the anus. Ones heal in 3-4 weeks on their own, but chronic ones require compulsory observation by a proctologist. The causes of cracks can be complicated birth, constipation, inflammatory processes, infections.
In patients, polyps in the rectum are quite common. Many do not even suspect their presence. They do not appear in any way and do not interfere with vital activity, however, if they degenerate into malignant formations, then they begin to pose a threat to the body in the form of colorectal cancer.
Rectal prolapse is a disease in which the rectum or part of it is outside the anus. On the first stages, it is necessary to consult a proctologist who will carry out diagnostic measures and prescribe treatment.
Itching in the anus is a symptom of rectal disease. It can also occur because of wearing tight clothing or synthetic underwear, but most often it is a sign of the disease. The causes of itching can be diseases of the rectum, sexually transmitted diseases of the genitourinary system, gynecological, skin, endocrine diseases. At the first symptoms, you should consult with a proctologist.
At an early age, diseases of the rectum can occur. If the first signs are detected, you should consult a pediatric proctologist. Thanks to treatment and prevention, it is possible to achieve full recovery due to the increased protective functions of the child's body.
The main diseases that are treated by a pediatric proctologist:
- Anomalies of the colon and anus;
- Fecal incontinence;
- Frequent constipation;
- Inflammatory diseases;
- Benign diseases;
- Rectal prolapse;
- An increase in hemorrhoidal nodes.
At the appointment, the doctor will conduct a consultation, a palpation examination, if it is necessary, prescribe additional diagnostic measures, and can also refer to a consultation with other specialists if the patient has the main pathology in another organ system that is not within the competence of the proctologist’s treatment.
A surgeon-proctologist can conduct consultations, examinations, as well as prescribe medication or carry out surgical interventions.
In some diseases, the use of surgical procedures is necessary, both in the hospital and on an outpatient basis.
For example, with progressive hemorrhoids, the ligation method (considered non-surgical) of hemorrhoidal nodes is used: a special ring is thrown onto the node leg, pinches it, thereby depriving of blood flow, after a couple of weeks, the ligature is rejected along with the node.
With human papilloma-virus infection (HPV), anogenital warts often arise, which are constantly irritated by friction, bleed. Their removal is carried out by a surgeon-proctologist using special laser devices.
Treatment of anal fissures can be carried out using special manipulations. The crack represents changes in the mucous membrane of the anus of the texture with loss of elasticity. There is a conservative surgical method for reducing such a defect, as well as a minimally invasive method - a hardware laser, which significantly reduces the rehabilitation period.
Tumours are removed surgically. It is mainly used for colorectal cancer. Interventions are carried out in a hospital with subsequent rehabilitation.
The decision to use surgical methods of intervention is made by the proctologist. In the non-neglected stages of the disease, medication and minimally invasive techniques can be used.
Conservative treatment is a treatment using medicines. They are tablets, suppositories, ointments, gels. Basically, with their help, some forms of proctologic diseases are treated. Often, such treatment has a supportive function.
Conservative therapy can be used in the treatment of some forms of hemorrhoids, anal fissures, inflammation of the anal canal.
If therapy is not possible in a conservative way, surgical treatment is used.
Doctors turn to this form of intervention in advanced stages of the disease, as a result of multiple attempts by a patient who has abused self-medication methods.
It is extremely important to consult with a specialist at the first sign of a disease. Over time, it will not get better, the disease will continue to progress. With therapy under the supervision of a proctologist and specialists in related specialties, as well as using minimally invasive methods, it is possible to achieve a complete recovery of the patient without resorting to surgery.
However, some pathologies are not treated in a conservative way - these are subacute and chronic anal fissures, various neoplasms (enlarged hemorrhoids, papillomas, condylomas, enlarged anal papillae).
A widespread disease requiring surgical intervention and subsequent rehabilitation is rectal cancer. The main risk factors for this disease include:
- Alimentary (the presence in the human diet of a large amount of meat, alcohol and low fiber, vitamins C and D);
- Hereditary predisposition;
- Tumours already present in the body, especially mammary glands and genitals;
- Unhealthy habits leading to immunodeficiency.
As a result of surgical interventions, the patient is subsequently rehabilitated and the outcome of the operation is monitored. Medical centers offering surgical treatment services in Belarus also provide rehabilitation services.
Basically, rehabilitation is required for patients who have undergone removal of neoplasms from the rectum.
For example, the medical center “RSPC OMR named after N. N. Alexandrova” carries out rehabilitation of patients with colorectal cancer after previous radical treatment (treatment of atony of the bladder, anal sphincter insufficiency, cicatricial strictures of the intestinal anastomoses).
The presence of highly qualified specialists in them, an expanded range of diagnostic capabilities, the use of high-tech equipment along with a high level of specialists allows us to establish the most accurate diagnosis and treat the patient in accordance with the best world standards. A number of centers provide a full range of proctology services in Belarus
Anoscopy is a diagnostic method in proctology. Basically, it serves as an addition to palpation research. The procedure is carried out using a special device in the form of a tube with a light source at the end - anoscope, it is inserted into the anus to a depth of 10 cm. The devices are reusable, which should have disinfection after the procedure, and disposable.
Anoscopy allows you to diagnose:
- Anal fissures;
- Internal inflammatory processes;
- An increase in the papillae;
- Condylomas, etc.
Specific preparation in addition to setting an enema before the study is not required. The duration of the diagnostic procedure is up to 15 minutes.
Retroromanoscopy is an endoscopic method for examining the rectum and distal sigmoid colon. It is carried out using a special device of a sigmoidoscope inserted into the anus by 20-25 cm. The method allows you to evaluate the external condition of the mucous membrane.
Retroromanoscopy allows diagnosing:
- Inflammatory processes;
Before the procedure, special preparation is required:
- The first method (the use of the Fortrans medicine, 2 packages). On the eve of the last meal should be at 14.00, take Fortrans 2 hours after eating (from 16.00 to 18.00). Mix 2 packets of Fortrans with 2 liters of water, take 1 glass in every 15 minutes.
In the morning of the examination day, 1 small enema.
- • The second way. The day before, the last meal should be at 14.00 an hour after eating a laxative - 2 bottles of castor oil or 2 packets of magnesia, at 20.00 and 21.00 do enemas, in the morning at 8.00 and 9.00 repeat enemas.
Colonoscopy is a research method in proctology, in which the doctor assesses the condition of the colon using an endoscope 1-1.2 meters long, at the end of which there is a monitor that displays information on the screen.
The method allows you to identify inflammation, tumours, colitis, and also take a biopsy. The method is informative, most often indicated for patients with neoplasms or polyps, the state of which must be monitored regularly. The doctor can also track the progression of inflammation of the mucous membrane when comparing data with indications from earlier visits.
Preparation for colonoscopy:
- Follow a diet for three days (exclude vegetables, fruits, legumes, dairy products);
- The day before the test, you can only have breakfast, and then - fasting, only sweet tea and water are allowed.
- If the patient has a history of diabetes, you can drink kefir before 15:00.
Further preparation takes place in two ways:
- The first method (the use of the Fortrans medicine, 4 packages). On the day of fasting, put each packet in 1 liter of water. The mixture should be taken from 15:00 to 19:00, 1 glass in every 15 minutes (a total of 4 liters).
- The second way. At 16.00, drink 50 g of castor oil. At 19.00 and 20.00 make enemas (2-2.5 liters of water at room temperature). In the morning, three hours before the study, repeat the enemas to clear waters.
Proctology for foreign citizens
Proctology services are provided for all citizens. In private medical centers, consultations, diagnostics and treatment are provided for a fee. In state centers, the difference will be that Belarusians provide services free of charge or according to the price list for citizens of the Republic of Belarus, and proctology for foreign citizens - only on a paid basis according to the price list for foreign citizens.
Consultation with proctologist
Consultation of a proctologist in Belarus can be obtained at state healthcare institutions and private medical centers.
In medical centers, it has a fixed price, and in state centers it will very often depend on the qualifications and scientific degree of the doctor.
Prevention of proctologic diseases consists in observing a healthy lifestyle (diet, changing activities from active to passive and vice versa, doing exercises, tracking the weight).
It is important to pay special attention to regular hygiene procedures: brushing your teeth, rinsing the anus and perineum.
Overweight people need to normalize their diet and level of physical activity. They should arrange a fasting day once a week. Throughout the day, it is allowed to drink 1 liter of tea without sugar or water.
With difficult emptying, patients require normalization of the stool. Recommended products (prunes, kefir, oatmeal, greens, vegetable salads for breakfast, kefir for the night, etc.).
How to make an appointment with a proctologist in Minsk?
In Belarus, there are private medical centers and hospitals where you can get help in the field of proctology. You can make an appointment with a proctologist in Minsk by making a preliminary call to the center you are interested in, or by visiting it directly.
Proctology centers: institutes, hospitals and departments in Minsk
Minsk medical institutions provide proctology services. Among them, both state and non-state operate. In proctology centers you can get a consultation with a doctor, examination by palpation, diagnostics with the use of special devices, as well as medical, painless surgical or non-surgical treatment.
State centers, which provide proctology services:
- Republican Center for Medical Rehabilitation and Balneotherapy
Address: Minsk, st. Makayonka, 17;
- 3rd city clinical hospital named after E. V. Klumova, proctologist’s paid office
Address: Minsk, st. Lenin, 30;
- Minsk Regional Clinical Hospital", proctology department
Address: Minsk region, ag. Forest, 1;
- 11th city clinical hospital
Address: Minsk, st. Korzhenevsky, 4;
- Medical Center “RSPC OMR named after N. N. Alexandrova
Address: Minsk region, ag. Forest;
- 2nd city clinical hospital
Address: Minsk, st. Engels, 25.
The main private centers, which provide proctology services:
Address: Minsk, st. Chervyakova, 22;
- Sedmoe nebo
Address: Minsk, st. Filimonova, 53;
Address: Minsk, st. Surganova, 47B;
Address: Minsk, st. Pritytsky, 39;
Address: Minsk, Pobediteley Ave., 45;
Address: Minsk, st. Trostenetskaya, 3;
Address: Minsk, st. Tolstoy, 4;
Address: Minsk, st. Pritytsky, 79.
The best proctologists in Belarus
In Belarus, medical services are in great demand among the foreigners in view of the relatively low prices and a high level of quality. The proctology is not an exception.
In order to save your time on our website you can find a list of the best proctologists in Belarus.
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