Both adults and children, ordinary people who live next to us, need transplantation. We will talk about the positive role of transplantology, why it is needed and what kinds of transplants are available.
What is transplantology?
Transplantology is the removal of living, functioning cells, tissues or organs from one organism and their subsequent transplantation into the same or another organism.
Transplantation from the point of view of the law
Pursuant to article 10 of the Law of the Republic of Belarus of 04.03.1997 No. 28-З "On transplantation of human organs and tissues", legally capable citizens have the right to submit to the state health care organization at the place of residence (place of stay), as well as to another state health care organization, where they are provided with medical care, a written statement of disagreement with the removal of organs for transplantation after death. In the case of persons duly recognized as legally incompetent, such an application is submitted by their legal representatives. In respect of persons who are not capable of taking a conscious decision due to their health condition, this statement is submitted by their spouse or one of their close relatives.
Transplantologist - who is it?
Transplantologist is a medical specialist in the field of transplantation of organs or the creation of their artificial analogues.
Every year, thanks to the coordinated work of these doctors, it is possible to save hundreds of people who can no longer be helped by traditional medicine.
The duties of a transplantologist
It's the transplantologist's duty:
- acquaintance with the patient's medical history;
- to suggest possible transplantation options;
- selection of a suitable donor (his examination);
- participation in the preparation of relevant documentation;
- preparation for surgery;
- control of the recipient's condition and the donor organ's acclimativeness.
Donation of human organs and tissues
Tissue or organ donor may be:
- a living person, related or unrelated to the recipient of the transplant;
- a person who has recently died (a deceased donor).
Еissues and organs obtained from live donors are preferable, as they are usually healthier. Stem cells (from bone marrow or blood) and kidneys are most commonly taken from live donors. A kidney can usually be safely taken from a donor because the body has two kidneys and is able to function normally even with one kidney. Living donors can also provide part of the liver, lung, or pancreas. Organs obtained from live donors are usually transplanted within minutes after withdrawal.
Some organs, such as the heart, cannot be obtained from a living donor.
The organs of deceased donors are usually taken from people who have previously agreed to donate their organs.
What types of transplants are available?
Kidney transplantation is a surgical operation consisting of transplanting a kidney from another person or animal to a person or animal. It is used as a method of substitution renal therapy in the terminal stage of chronic renal failure in humans and some animals.
Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is a surgical operation that involves replacing a sick liver with another person's healthy liver.
Heart transplantation is an operation in which a patient who is unable to perform his functions is replaced by a healthy, donated organ. This treatment is usually performed in patients whose condition has not been improved by conservative therapy or other surgical intervention.
Transplantation of other organs
Transplantation of other organs is the transplantation of any organ obtained from a donor during life or after death, to another person or recipient with insufficiency of an organ in the final stage. Organ transplantation has become a daily phenomenon in modern medicine.
Artificial organs - devices designed to temporarily or permanently replace the functions of the recipient's native organs. They can be both permanent and temporary; both internal (implanted into the body) and external.
Use of animal organs
Xenotransplantation or interspecies transplantation - transplantation of organs, tissues or cellular organoids from the animal body to the body or part of the human body.
Xenotransplantation remains impossible and unfeasible with the current level of development of transplantology. Even with a very strong depression of the recipient's immunity, xenotransplant from the pig does not survive in the human body as a result of a hyperacute rejection reaction, accompanied by massive destruction of red blood cells, agglutination of red blood cells and platelets and multiple blood clots of transplanted xenoids.
Preservation of organs
Canning and storage of organs and tissues for transplantation are performed with strict observance of the rules of aseptics and antiseptics in specially equipped laboratories and operating centers of transplantology, research institutes and their branches.
Medical rehabilitation of patients after transplantation is carried out in the early and late postoperative period in stages: at the medical rehabilitation, early medical rehabilitation and outpatient polyclinic stages.
At each stage, rehabilitation potential, disorders of organs and systems of the organism, and limitations of vital activity, which are the basis for making a decision on conducting medical rehabilitation of the recipient of the liver and development of an individual rehabilitation program, where the specific purpose of rehabilitation is set and the planned scope of rehabilitation measures with their exact dosage, the order of implementation, location, completeness and duration of the courses of medical rehabilitation is specified, the evaluation of the course of medical rehabilitation is given.
Transplantology for foreign nationals
To include a foreign patient on the transplant waiting list in the Republic of Belarus, a special permission must be obtained from the Ministry of Health. Foreign citizens are included in the waiting list together with Belarusians. However, the body obtained in Belarus is transplanted to the foreign citizen only if it does not fit any Belarusian on the waiting list. The limit for foreign nationals is not more than 10% of the total number of operations.
Transplantation centers: institutes, hospitals, departments
This page lists the best transplant centers in the country.
Best transplant doctors in Belarus
You can contact any of the transplant centers listed on this page and be sure that the best doctors in Belarus work there.
At present, against the backdrop of a worldwide shortage of human organs, donor requirements are being reviewed. For example, kidney transplantation has more often seen dying elderly patients suffering from diabetes mellitus and some other diseases as donors. These donors are referred to as marginal or extended criteria donors. Organ transplants from live donors are the most successful, but most patients, especially adults, do not have sufficiently young and healthy relatives who are able to donate their organs without compromising their health. Posthumous organ donation is the only way to provide the main number of patients who need transplantation.
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