Oncology can occur in any living organism at any age stage, but it is believed that such a risk increases with age. What does oncology mean? The official interpretation of the term “oncology” says that this is a field of medicine that studies the causes and mechanisms of the development of malignant tumours. And despite significant successes in the oncology treatment, diseases of this kind are still accompanied by a high mortality rate, and to recover, it is required to seek the help of highly qualified oncologists.
The essence of oncology
The basis of a cancer tumour is the incorrect regulation of tissue growth. The cells of the human body are regularly updated, and in this regeneration process there is always the possibility of mutation. This risk increases significantly with the negative effects of radiation, carcinogenic compounds.
The essence of oncology is to identify cells with mutated DNA molecules, determine the aggressiveness of their division, and search for suitable treatment methods. Do not think that if a doctor diagnosed a person with a cancer, oncology, it is fatal. Oncology statistics demonstrate that in more than half of cases, patients fully recover and forever forget about the pathology.
Symptoms and signs
Signs of oncology in the body depend on the type of tumour, its location, the presence of metastases. Benign tumours usually are difficult to recognise, only large neoplasms cause discomfort. But the symptoms of malignant oncology have something in common. These signs of oncology include:
- increased fatigue, weakness;
- apathy, lack of desire to live;
- decreased working capacity;
- low-grade fever;
- big weight loss;
- discoloration of the skin;
- pain in the affected organs during oncology;
- digestive upsets;
- unusual spotting between periods - signs of women oncology.
It should be understood that it is impossible to diagnose cancer only by uncharacteristic manifestations, since the disease also disguises itself as other pathologies. The prognosis of oncology and its consequences depend on the timeliness of the therapy and on the qualifications of the doctor. If a patient is diagnosed with stage 4 oncology, and he decides to be treated with prayers alone, then there can be no question of any improvement in his condition.
Oncology examination in Minsk
Screening for oncology should be carried out annually. In Minsk, you can go to the oncology clinic in order to get examination. An oncology examination can be free if a doctor makes an appointment for a test, and you will undergo it at a state medical institution.
Often, the diagnosis of oncology is determined by chance when a person undergoes preventive examinations. The diagnostic testing of oncology begins after the initial pathological manifestations. The main diagnostic methods include:
- MRI, CT;
- radionuclide research;
- genetic examination;
- biochemical testing.
The final diagnosis is made only after histological diagnosis (biopsy).
Oncology blood test
What tests show oncology? A blood test is not an indicator of oncology, but according to its results, the doctor can find the problems in the organism, and refer the patient for additional examinations. The following tests show oncology indirectly:
- general, showing the ratio of all blood cells;
- biochemical, which is able to detect the localization of the tumour.
Note! If you do not know what tests to take for oncology, then give preference to such an analysis for oncology as blood for tumour markers. This is the most accurate test.
Blood indications in oncology are very important. Any change in the concentration of leukocytes, hemoglobin, glucose for no reason indicates a latent disease. For example, in oncology, ESR is usually increased, and hemoglobin levels are lowered.
Everyone is ill with cancer, there are adult oncology, pediatric oncology, pathology is detected even in animals.
Pediatric oncology has no age threshold. A tumour can appear both in utero and in the process of growing up. In children of the first year of life, the following types of oncology are often detected: retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma.
Women oncology is usually diagnosed in the following organs: uterus, cervix, mammary glands, ovaries, kidneys, skin.
Men usually have other cancer localizations. Men oncology is often diagnosed in the lungs, colon, stomach, prostate, throat, and liver. The most common causes of illness are smoking and alcohol abuse.
According to the reviews on various forums, oncology can develop without obvious reasons after the operation. A neoplasm can affect any organ and tissue of the human body, therefore there are many oncological diseases.
Cancer found in intracranial structures is considered the most difficult in terms of therapy, since the quality of information processing, sanity and vital activity of the patient depend on the brain nerve endings. When doctors try to destroy atypical cells, they can affect healthy cells. Brain oncology increases the risk of decrease in intellectual activity of the patient.
Malignant forms in the larynx are more often detected in men. Oncology of the throat provokes a change in voice, shortness of breath, pain, cough. And neck oncology can cause difficulty with swallowing.
Breast oncology is a frequently diagnosed dysfunction. This is the most common form of cancer among women. Breast oncology is manifested by discharge from the nipples, palpation of the seals, retraction of the nipples, and a change in the shape of the glands. Breast cancer is also accompanied by an increase in axillary lymph nodes.
Oncology of the stomach
Cancer affects the epithelial lining of the stomach. Symptoms of stomach oncology are vomiting, loss of appetite, bloating, weight loss, general weakness.
Intestinal cancer is a malignant tumour, the atypical cells of which replace the mucous epithelium. Intestinal oncology is usually detected in the lower digestive tract. Surgery is necessary for a full recovery, such oncology also requires chemotherapy.
This type of cancer can be easily recognized at the initial stages of its development, which greatly facilitates the treatment. Skin oncology is differentiated into 4 types:
- basal cell;
Important! Moles that change their shape and colour for no reason should be examined by a doctor, as they often degenerate into oncology.
On the websites of oncology clinics and centers, you can study photos of skin oncology.
Such cancer affects bone structures. Bone oncology is usually the result of cancer metastasis of a different location. Oncology of the legs, hands, skeleton can develop against the background of a severe cancer of the prostate gland, lungs, and mammary glands.
A serious disease of the hematopoietic system. Blood oncology appears after the release of certain cells from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. In acute aggressive course of the pathology, bone marrow transplantation and intensive chemotherapy are necessary.
Lung cancer is a disease that cannot be recognised in the initial stages. If a fluorography is not done for prophylaxis, lung cancer can be detected too late when treatment is already ineffective.
Oncology of the lymph nodes
This is a systemic disease that originates in the structures of lymphoid tissue. Oncology of the lymph nodes gradually covers the entire human body.
Uterine cancer affects the endometrial layer lining the cavity of the genital organ. Oncology of the uterus is accompanied by uncharacteristic discharge, soreness, disruptions in the cycle of menstruation. No less often diagnosed with oncology of the ovaries and cervix.
Malignant neoplasm occurs in the ducts or hepatic lobes that remove bile. Oncology of the liver is characterized by an aggressive course, it is difficult to treat.
A tumour lesion is localized in the parenchyma or ducts of the gland. Pancreatic oncology provokes yellowness of the eyeballs, loss of appetite, nausea, intestinal disorders.
Cancer can affect either one or both kidneys. Kidney oncology can lead to metastasis and is difficult to treat. Pathology is more often detected in men and in older people.
The tumour begins to progress in the cells of the prostate gland, it is characterized by slow growth. Oncology of the prostate does not have specific symptoms in the early stages, this complicates the diagnosis of the disease.
The condition is a part of the colorectal cancer group. Oncology of the rectum develops in the final section of the digestive tract. This tumour is one of the most common in the world.
Rather rare disease. Thyroid oncology appears in the structures and cells of the gland. Pathology can be suspected by nodes in the neck, swelling.
There are 3 main methods of therapy for oncology:
- surgical intervention;
- radiation therapy;
During oncology treatment, special nutrition is necessary. Also, many patients do not know whether it is possible to drink with oncology, and drink alcohol. Ethyl alcohol worsens the condition of the body, lowering the immune status. Therefore, during therapy, you need to have a healthy lifestyle.
The choice of a specific treatment model depends on the stage of oncology. Some patients, not believing in remission in oncology and not trusting the services of a doctor, prefer to use alternative methods against oncology (tinctures, herbal medicine for oncology). Such an irresponsible approach to one’s health can lead the patient to disability and group with oncology, as well as cause death.
Oncology irradiation destroys the DNA molecules of the tumour, after human abnormal cells become incapable of growth and division. Radiation therapy in oncology is very destructive, but the affected healthy cells are regenerated after irradiation, but cancer cells are not. In many cases, oncologists use radiation along with chemotherapeutic drugs to fight cancer. If a patient experiences side effects during the treatment, he is prescribed medications and painkillers for oncology.
The technique is aimed at inhibiting abnormal cell division. Chemotherapy in oncology is accompanied by the use of toxic drugs, the dosage of which is selected by the oncologist in each case individually.
People with chemistry in oncology began to use targeted therapy - when medicines act specifically on atypical cells, and not on the whole body. Targeted oncology opens up new possibilities for patients; therapy becomes not mass, but personalized.
A special place in the fight against cancer is occupied by immunotherapy in oncology - a modern method of therapy that forces the immune system to destroy atypical structures. Treatment involves taking modern drugs that act on certain receptors, helping the immune system recognize abnormal structures and get rid of them. How to take such drugs for oncology, the doctor will tell you. Some doctors also prescribe vitamins for oncology (for example, ASD fraction 2).
In order to prevent the cancer, you need to know the risk factors that trigger the disease. There are:
- ultraviolet radiation;
- environmental effects;
- chemical carcinogens;
In order not to become one of the patients with oncology, follow simple prevention.
Oncology centers: institutes, hospitals and departments
You can get help from an oncologist at oncology centers, clinics, and hospitals. You can find out which oncology is better and whether free appointment is possible on the website of the oncology.
Oncology for foreign citizens
People who are not citizens of the Republic of Belarus can receive paid services of oncologists. To find out the prices and time for appointments, contact the registry of the oncology you are interested in.
The best oncologists in Belarus
Among the best Belarusian oncologists are the following specialists:
- Pocheshinsky Pavel Viktorovich;
- Maisenya Elena Nikolaevna;
- Moiseenko Valeriy Vasilievich;
- Kozhanov Nikolay Semenovich.
Reviews on the work and competence of the oncologists can be read on the oncology forums.
Medical centers, department and oncology clinics in Minsk
You can visit the following oncology medical centers in Minsk:
- Vnuki Hippocrata;
- Sedmoe nebo;
- 1st central district oncology polyclinic;
- RSPC of Oncology (regional oncology).
If you have a genetic predisposition to cancer, contact a specialist for an oncogenetic examination and specific tests. Regular check-ups will help to identify the disease at the initial stage and avoid life-threatening consequences.
Photo: img11.postila.io, static3.smi2.net, nervovnet.com.