What does a reproductologist do?
A reproductologist is a doctor who deals with the problems of pregnancy. It identifies and treats reproductive disorders in women and men; conducts infertility therapy, as well as the prevention of unwanted pregnancy.
The main task of the reproductologist is primarily to identify the reasons for the impossibility of conception and to search for treatment. He carries out IVF, oversees the process of bearing the fetus, childbirth.
If it is necessary, the reproductologist selects contraception methods for the couple for a period during which the occurrence of pregnancy is not desirable.
When should you contact a reproductologist?
Most often, couples who engage in regular sex life without the use of contraceptives, who do not conceive a child for a long time (within 12 months), turn to a reproductologist.
Pregnancy preparation services are also in demand; in this case, the reproductologist identifies and timely eliminates risk factors for infertility among partners. Especially this service is recommended for people with a burdened obstetric history.
Factors when you need to contact a reproductologist:
- Oncology in the history of one of the partners;
- Burdened obstetric history in women;
- Check fertility of future parents in adulthood;
- Conception of a child does not occur for more than 12 months.
Diagnosis and treatment
Both partners and one of them can have infertility causes, so it is important to visit a reproductologist together. Reproductive problems can be associated with urological, gynecological, infectious, endocrinological diseases, as well as malnutrition. Each partner needs to undergo diagnostics and timely treatment, with a view to the subsequent successful conception.
When diagnosing the causes of infertility, they often need to consult with a urologist. Most often, it is recommended to visit men who have a history of urological diseases (inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs, sexually transmitted infections), harmful working conditions, and age over 40 years. In this case, the urologist will prescribe a set of treatment and prophylactic measures, in particular, he can send a spermogram for its subsequent evaluation.
Women with frequent recurrent inflammatory infections of the urinary tract should also consult with a urologist, since the risk of relapse during pregnancy is increased due to an increase in the concentration of progesterone in the blood, weakening of the tone of the smooth muscles of the bladder, ureters, and colon.
Inflammatory processes can occur in acute and latent forms.
If there is an analysis of the ongoing infectious process, the doctor prescribes:
- Drink plenty of water with the goal of intensive “leaching” of the bacterial agent from the body;
- Remediation of the genitourinary tract (the appointment of anti-inflammatory, antiseptic herbal medicines in combination (if it is necessary) with antimicrobial);
- Recovery of intestinal and vaginal microflora;
- Supportive therapy with herbal anti-inflammatory and antiseptic herbal medicines.
In preparing for pregnancy, an important role is played by ultrasound diagnostics. This is a safe, non-invasive research method that allows you to detect various diseases in the early stages.
The most common types of ultrasound when planning pregnancy are:
- Transvaginal ultrasound of the pelvic organs. The doctor assesses the condition of the female genital organs (their shape, location, size, presence of neoplasms). An important condition for the information content of the study is to conduct it in the second phase of the menstrual cycle.
- Ultrasound of the mammary glands.The doctor assesses the condition of the organs and the absence / presence of neoplasms. The time frame for the procedure is also due to the menstrual cycle (5-11 day cycle).
- Mammography. The study is shown to women over the age of 35 years. It allows you to identify changes in the tissues of the mammary glands, as well as assess the nature of their distribution. The method will be applied on the 5-11th day of the cycle.
When diagnosing the causes of infertility, laboratory diagnostics come to the rescue. Also, the conduct of certain analyzes that make up this complex of studies is mandatory before conception. Sometimes genetic studies are performed to identify and correct hereditary diseases.
The main types of studies conducted to diagnose the presence / absence of diseases or genetic predispositions:
- General and biochemical analysis of blood, general analysis of urine;
- Hormonal blood tests:
- Hormones and markers of thyroid diseases (thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin);
- The reproductive system (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, prolactin, progesterone, estradiol, antisperm antibodies);
- Male sex hormones and hormones of the adrenal cortex (dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone; globulin that binds sex hormones);
- Markers of ovarian disease (anti-ovarian antibodies).
- Serological diagnosis of infectious diseases:
- IgM / IgG antibodies to: rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes viruses type 1 and 2;
- IgM / G antibodies to chlamydia trachomatis.
- PCR diagnosis of infectious diseases caused by:
- Herpes virus type 1 or 2.
- Genetic studies:
- Carriers (phenylketonuria, cystic fibrosis, congenital dysfunction of the adrenal cortex);
- Genetic factors of male infertility;
- Predisposition to thrombosis during gestation, etc.
Every woman needs to be consulted by a gynecologist at least once every six months. In preparing for pregnancy, this stage is extremely important, since the doctor assesses the state of the reproductive system, identifies potential risks for the expectant mother, prescribes the necessary treatment and makes recommendations:
- To begin with, a woman must exclude the presence of gynecological diseases, since they can adversely affect the development of the child in the womb;
- Treatment should be carried out before conception, and during this period the patient should follow the doctor’s recommendations for contraception;
- Eliminate progesterone deficiency;
- To diagnose and treat all forms of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, followed by restoration of the genital tract microbiocenosis.
Somatic diseases of a woman in the future will affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, therefore, it is necessary to carry out their treatment in advance, to achieve remission and undergo supportive therapy.
The timely detection and correction of endocrine diseases is a key point in preparing for pregnancy.
The main ones are:
Normally, a static increase in the hormone prolactin should not be observed, often it indicates the presence of tumors in the patient's body, as well as thyroid diseases and renal failure;
- Thyroid disease:
Allocate hypo - and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. With hypofunction during pregnancy, it is necessary to take L-thyroxine drugs, the dose of which is prescribed by an endocrinologist, ignoring maintenance therapy can lead to infertility. With hyperfunction, thyreostatics are used or a partial resection of the gland is performed;
It proceeds in two forms: compensated and uncompensated. With a compensated flow in the blood, it is possible to maintain the glucose concentration at a normal level with the help of insulin, tablet forms, physical activity and a special diet. An uncompensated form can most likely lead to a miscarriage, the decision to carry such a pregnancy, taking into account the wishes of the patient, is taken collectively);
- Obesity and overweight
According to WHO, the optimal body mass index is in the range from 18 to 24.9 kg / m2, the disease can lead to miscarriage, it is often associated with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, the doctor is endocrinologist, prescribing diet therapy, physical activity, correction of endocrine disorders, drug therapy.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Nowadays, for a number of reasons, many couples cannot conceive a child on their own. In this regard, assisted reproductive technologies have been actively developed. Among them, the leading direction is in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Before conducting IVF, spouses need to undergo a number of diagnostic procedures: take a blood test for hormones, a test for a wide range of genital infections, pelvic ultrasound, a spermogram, a smear for cytology, colposcopy, a blood test for toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes, thyroid ultrasound, etc.
- Stimulation of the ovaries;
- Puncture of follicles;
- In vitro fertilization and cultivation of embryos;
- Transfer of the resulting embryos into the uterine cavity;
- Maintaining the luteal phase of the stimulated menstrual cycle;
- Diagnosis of early pregnancy.
Thorough diagnosis at the stage of preparation for IVF, impeccable adherence to the recommendations of the attending physician is the key to a successful outcome of the manipulation.
Before conceiving a child, a phlebologist should carry out a consultation. It will be especially relevant after the first birth. Due to the active, and sometimes too much, lifestyle and standing or sitting work, many women are faced with the problem of varicose veins.
At first, the problem is completely invisible, it appears only occasionally in the evening in the form of tired and swollen lower extremities, however, the subcutaneous vascular network, which is replaced by vascular asterisks, developing into expanding vessels, soon appears.
However, if the above option is visible to the naked eye, then varicose veins of the small pelvis have no external manifestations. Only the patient herself is able to assess her internal condition and note symptoms: itching, a feeling of heaviness and pain in the perineum, pain when walking, increased fatigue, edema of the external genital organs.
Complications of varicose veins are very dangerous, as they can be fatal. Timely access to a doctor, prevention and treatment will allow you to protect yourself and the future baby from death.
Therefore, it is necessary to undergo an examination by a phlebologist on time.
The preparation of conception must be treated extremely responsibly. Passing the examinations of all doctors and passing the necessary tests is a significant part of the preparation, but experts also recommend not to forget about dietetics.
Patients preparing to become mothers should consume healthy foods enriched with vitamins and minerals, in addition, take a number of vitamins for individual purposes:
- Folic acid - used to prevent pregnancy complications and malformations. Recommended for use by women within 3 months before conception, as well as during the first trimester of gestation at a dose of 400-800 mg / day. It is most well absorbed in the form of folate-containing complexes.
- Iodine - is used to prevent cretinism and congenital thyroid diseases, it must be taken within 3 months before conception. The appointment is carried out for women at a dose of 250 mg / day and for men at a dose of 100 mg / day. After pregnancy, the doctor increases the dose of iodine consumed by the patient.
- Iron - used only according to the indications after the results of a blood test.
- Vitamin D - used in women before conception in a dosage of 600-800 mg / day. The doctor can prescribe higher doses, according to the results of a blood test for the content of vitamin D. If a deficiency is diagnosed, its mandatory correction is required.
- Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) - are used in women during preparation and during pregnancy at a dose of 200-300 mg / day. They contribute to the physiological formation of brain structures, the immune system, and organs of vision.
- Multivitamin and mineral complexes - used to prevent malformations, reduce the percentage of births of children with weight deficiency, and reduce perinatal mortality.
The body of a pregnant woman is very vulnerable. Also during this period, there are a number of hormonal changes that make expectant mothers more sensitive to drugs, they may experience allergic reactions. Therefore, the fact of pregnancy should be discussed with your beautician so that he selects the most suitable procedure for your skin. So the number of favorable procedures will include:
- Facial massage - allows a woman to relax. During the session, lymphatic drainage improves and excess fluid is removed from the body, this effect is very relevant, since pregnant women often have swelling.
- Masks - used during pregnancy. However, the cosmetologist selects a suitable hypoallergenic and non-toxic composition, and also draws attention to the smell of the mask in view of the possibility of developing toxicosis.
- Surface peels can be used during pregnancy due to their effect on the surface of the skin.
Hardware procedures and injection techniques that penetrate the skin peels during pregnancy should be eliminated. Often they cause stress, thereby adversely affecting the pregnant woman, depriving her of the desired peace and comfort.
Gynecological massage is one of the productive methods in the treatment of female diseases. When performing massage techniques that affect the genitals, changes occur not only in and around the organs themselves, but also in the body as a whole.
In the center of reproductive medicine "Eco" an unusual type of massage is performed - sound. A very common cause preventing conception is stress. And “Sound Massage” helps patients relax, gather their thoughts, become more balanced and calm.
Massage, as an independent type of therapy, is not used; it is used in the complex treatment of infertility.
Reproductive Medicine Clinics
Clinics of reproductive medicine are well developed in Belarus. The practice of treating infertility has been used in them for several decades. In these centers, many couples gain the opportunity to become happy parents. Reception is conducted by qualified and experienced doctors, most of whom have undergone internship abroad.
Clinic for Reproduction and Genetics "Clinic Eva"
The Clinic for Reproduction and Genetics “Clinic Eva” is very popular among women, because here women, including future mothers, can find a solution to their gynecological and reproductive problems. Here, upscale and responsive specialists are always ready to help and are very kind to patients.
On the basis of the center there is diagnostic equipment that allows for the implementation of clarification of diagnoses, as well as preventive examinations. A laboratory has also been created here, which provides convenience for the patient, because you do not have to spend extra time and visit other centers for the purpose of taking tests.
Address: Minsk, st. Herzen, 12.
Family Health Center "Bina"
The Bina Family Health Center is a multidisciplinary center. The clinic's specialists have extensive experience in reproductology, as well as constantly undergo continuing education in Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, Europe and Georgia. The center is equipped with the latest equipment, offers a wide range of services.
The main areas of specialization of the clinic:
- Overcoming male and female infertility by IVF;
- Obstetrics and gynecology;
- Aesthetic gynecology;
- Urology and andrology;
- Plastic surgery;
- Ultrasound of a wide profile;
- Psychological service;
Address: Vitebsk, 83 Frunze Ave.
Gomel Regional Diagnostic Medical Genetic Center “Marriage and family”
Gomel Regional Diagnostic Medical Genetic Center "Marriage and Family" provides specialized assistance in the field of reproductive health. He carries out preventive, diagnostic measures in relation to the diagnosis and treatment of congenital and hereditary diseases.
In the clinic, assisted reproductive technologies (IVF, intrauterine insemination), as well as advice on family planning, are in demand.
The center includes:
- Clinical diagnostic laboratory;
- Department of physiotherapy;
- Department of prophylaxis of tumors of the reproductive system;
- Department of Reproductive Health;
- Department of prenatal diagnosis.
Address: Gomel, st. Kirova, 57.
The center has been operating in Belarus for several decades. The quality of the services provided is in line with European. All medical measures are carried out in accordance with the standards of WHO, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology, as well as regulatory legal acts of the Republic of Belarus.
There qualified specialists with experience of 10 to 25 years work, in the arsenal of which are the latest technologies. The doctors of the center undergo internships in clinics in the USA, Czech Republic, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus.
The main focus of the Embryo assisted reproduction center is the diagnosis and treatment of infertility.
Address: Minsk, Filimonova, 53, floor. 5.
Republican Scientific and Practical Center "Mother and Child"
The Republican Scientific and Practical Center "Mother and Child" is one of the leading centers in the field of reproductive and child health. Its main tasks are:
- Improving family planning and genetic counselling services;
- Decrease in reproductive losses;
- Reducing the incidence of both pregnant women and newborns;
- Improving demographic indicators;
- Scientific developments and their subsequent implementation.
The scientific and practical center, in addition to the standard list of services in this area, offers some types of high-tech assistance:
- In the field of obstetrics:
- Modern reproductive assistive technologies:
- Transfer of embryos into the uterine cavity;
- Injection of sperm into the cytoplasm of the oocyte;
- Sperm donation;
- Oocyte donation;
- Preimplantation diagnosis of hereditary diseases;
- Artificial insemination with sperm.
- Medical and diagnostic fetoscopy of the fetus in dynamics: The method is used to study the fetus in the uterine cavity for the diagnosis of congenital malformations.
- In the field of neonatology and pediatrics:
- Laser-coagulation treatment of retinopathy of premature infants;
- Early neurosurgical correction of severe forms of intraventricular hemorrhage;
- Carrying out audiometric screening in newborns for early detection and treatment of dysfunction of the auditory analyzer;
- Early surgical correction of the open ductus arteriosus in deeply premature infants.
- In the field of medical genetics:
- Mass spectrometric diagnosis of hereditary metabolic diseases;
- Diagnosis of hereditary and acquired thrombophilia;
- Diagnosis of genetic disorders in patients with various forms of hereditary pathologies based on high performance liquid chromatography.
Address: Minsk, st. Orlovskaya, 66.
Center for Reproductive Medicine "ECO"
The Center for Reproductive Medicine "ECO" is a leading private clinic for the diagnosis and treatment of all forms of male and female infertility, which use both conservative methods and assisted reproductive technologies. The clinic also treats pregnancy loss, endocrine disorders, sexually transmitted infections.
Thanks to the specialists of the center, about 10,000 children have already been born.
Appointments are conducted by high-class doctors who are constantly improving their skills.
The main services of the center:
- Laboratory diagnostics;
- Ultrasound diagnostics;
- Liquid oncocytology;
- Infertility treatment;
- Treatment of hormonal and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system in men and women;
- Pregnancy management;
- Consultations of specialists: andrologist, urologist, gynecologist, genetics, endocrinologist.
Address: Minsk, st. Surganova, 54.
City Clinical Maternity Hospital №2
City Clinical Maternity Hospital No. 2 is a leading center providing specialized care to pregnant women, women in labor, newborns, and gynecological patients.
Since 2008, the institution has been assigned the status of a perinatal center (highest) of the 3rd level. It includes such non-standard departments as: resuscitation and intensive care of newborns, a pediatric department for premature babies, a department for postpartum complications, etc. The center employs highly qualified specialists, many of whom have been trained abroad. The maternity hospital is equipped with high-tech equipment.
The center provides paid services for both citizens of the Republic of Belarus and foreign patients. The main ones are:
- The whole range of ultrasound examinations;
- Diagnostic and laboratory tests;
- Individual patient care;
- Reproductive technologies;
- Conducting abortion operations with anesthesia.
Address: Minsk, st. Belskogo, 60.
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